Khuay-to vietnamese ninja
«Khuay-to ”was called, in today's language,“ fighters of the invisible front ”, scouts, scouts, representatives of the secret school of martial arts of the kingdom of Tampa, which once existed on the territory of ancient Vietnam. The kingdom was in the central part of the country. It has long gone into tradition, its language has dissolved in the modern language of Vietnam. But legends are preserved
legends, and even grains of secret knowledge of ancient art, shrouded in a kind of romance.
True, training systems for spies, saboteurs were known, perhaps, to all peoples. For example, today everyone has heard about the ninjutsu school, the art of preparing secret ninja warriors surrounded by legends and traditions. According to legend, the founder of this art was the semi-legendary emperor Jimmu, although the first official documents on the creation of such schools date back to Prince Setoku (574-622).
There were general conditions for the emergence of spyware training systems. The most important of them is the emergence of a state, for which the main thing was to maintain stability both within it and in its relations with its neighbors.
So, the creation of a holistic, integrated system of espionage was influenced by the tasks of maintaining and maintaining statehood. But a voluntary or involuntary role in improving and shaping these schools, their styles and orientation, was played by ... religion, or rather, rivalry between different religions or between different movements within one religion. Thanks to this rivalry, spy training systems gained access to the most protected secrets - the monophysical training systems of monks, based on rich experience, created and tested for a long time in the training of ministers of various cults.
All adherents of the training systems for spies fanatically believed in the unlimited possibilities of man, it was believed that this system helps to see the path indicated by God to serve him and fulfill any of his will.
The application of their abilities to serve the Lord was manifested in various spheres of life and could be expressed in various forms. There is a famous story about the construction of the temple of Lord Ranganadhi, located on an island lying on the Kaveri river.
At the beginning of the 8th century A.D. lived in India a devotee named Tirumangai. He constantly traveled around the country, visiting holy temples, and was famous for creating poetry prayers.
During his travels, he had students, great mystics, each of whom possessed extraordinary abilities.
The first was called Tola Wazhakkan, he defeated any opponent in debate.
The second - Taladuvan, could open any chamok without a key.
The third - Nizkhalai Mithippan, could make any person stop and shut up simply by stepping on his shadow.
The fourth, Nirmal Nadappan, developed the “laghima siddhi,” which makes it possible to walk on water.
Traveling to the holy places of India, Tirumangai with his disciples came to the temple of Lord Ranganadhi. Initially, the Ranganatha Deity was established by Vibhishana, the brother of Ravanna. By the time Tirumangai and his disciples came here, the temple was completely dilapidated, and only once a day a priest came there to offer the deity several flowers and a little water, and in a hurry to retire from fear of wild animals.
Seeing all this, the travelers decided to rebuild the temple, although they did not have money. An appeal to rich people to help in their endeavors yielded no results, none of them gave even a small coin, and often also blasphemed those who asked, calling them robbers and thieves.
After numerous and futile attempts to raise money for the restoration of the temple by honest means, Tirumangai called the students and addressed them with the following words: “We spent enough time trying to convince these! villains that they should serve the Lord. They will forever remain treacherous atheists. What is better: to beg from these boobies, while Lord Ranganatha I remains in such a deplorable state, or to disgrace them by building such a magnificent temple for the Lord that will make them bow to His feet? ”
The disciples replied: "Our duty is to serve God, and not be the servants of these scammers."
“Then get ready,” Tiramangai continued, “because from this day we will make sure that the wealth of these merchants goes to the construction of the temple.” These wealthy landowners, cruel from birth, have lived their lives, robbing the poor who are engaged in hard labor, without even feeding them their fill. And now we will pluck these villains and use their money to build a temple and feed the poor. ” The students agreed with the teacher’s suggestion. Tola Wazhakkan said: “No one can defeat me in an argument. Thus, while I will engage in the debate of several rich people and their minions, they will forget about everything in the world, and you can easily take away their treasures. ”
Tudulovan said: “I can open any lock without a key. Thus, not a single chest will remain locked for us. ”
Nizkhalai Mithippan said: “Everyone whose shadow touches my leg will lose strength and become motionless. So we can easily stop rich travelers on the road. ”
Nirmal Nadappan said: “The large houses of wealthy landowners, surrounded by moats, are always open! for me, because I walk freely on water. Therefore everything; the treasures of the kings are yours. ” (I quote from the collection of Naimisaranya Das “The Life of Ramanujacarya,” Ed. Kurama
press. 1994 g). Thus, with the help of robbery, a magnificent temple of Lord Ranganatha was built.
Speaking about the cultures of the East, it must be stated that the cultures of India and China had the greatest influence on the formation of customs, beliefs and technological achievements.
Trying to understand how martial art arose, or rather, how a simple fight based on physical superiority turned into a duel of both mental and physical energies, it is necessary to take into account the influence of one of the main philosophical schools of India - yoga.
Thanks to her, or rather, the technique of training the mind and body developed in her, many schools and systems of military art arose.
In the same legend about the construction of the temple, it was said that the students possessed certain supernatural abilities, which they acquired with the help of certain yoga techniques that reveal man's reserve abilities.
The founder of the yoga system, according to the Yajnavalkya smrti, was Hiranyagarbha. The meanings of the word "yoga" are different: it is both a "method" and "connection", it is also a synonym for the concepts of "samadhi" ("liberation"), "God."
The yoga system has embodied India's eternal dream of acquiring, through discipline, both physical and mental supernormal abilities that are not common to ordinary people.
Yogis believed that curbing the senses and mental activity helps to achieve liberation from suffering.
One of the most comprehensive treatises on yoga that have survived to this day is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, which are the oldest manual of the "yoga" school. Patanjali was the first to associate physical exercise with control of a person’s mental activity. The Yoga Sutras consist of four parts.
- the first interprets the nature and purpose of samadhi, or contemplative immersion in oneself (samadhipada);
- the second determines the means to achieve this goal (sadhanapada);
- the third reveals the significance of unusual abilities achieved through the practice of yoga (vibhutipada);
- The fourth sets forth the nature of liberation (kaivalyapada).
Yoga, according to Patanjali, is a systematic 'effort used to achieve perfection through control over various elements of human nature - physical and mental. The physical body, active will and knowing mind must. be subordinate to control.
The main goal of Patanjali is not metaphysical theorizing, but practical motivation - to indicate how salvation can be achieved through orderly activity.
Yoga Patanjali is a crystallization of the ideas of asceticism and contemplation that existed in his time.
The yoga system had a great influence on the formation of Buddhism. Apparently (according to "Lalitavistara"), this is due to the great popularity of the myriad forms of ascetic art in the time of the Buddha. For example, it is known that one of the teachers of Buddha, Alar, was well versed in yoga. The Buddha himself had used yoga in the form of ascetic art and practice of higher consciousness.
Buddhist Sutta was familiar with the techniques of concentration practiced yoga.
The four States of Dhyana Buddhism (management of the flow of thought, which is also called meditation) approximately correspond to the four stages of mental concentration in classical yoga.
According to Buddhism, the possession of the five qualities: faith, energy, thinking, concentration, and wisdom - makes it possible to achieve the goals of yoga. The school of Buddhism of yogacara openly combines Buddhist doctrine with elements of yoga. Later Buddhist works take advanced yoga system of concentration.
In the beginning, together with wandering Buddhist monks, ideas and cultural heritage of India came to China, where it has transformed, adapting to local conditions. Then this knowledge was spread to Korea, Japan, Vietnam. Moreover, Vietnam was in the most advantageous position, as pilgrims from China and other countries in anticipation of the passing ships stayed here to study Sanskrit. On the reverse 11ути they also staying, sharing acquired and travel knowledge.
For an explanation of the systems of the training of spies, in particular, the system Chuai something that occurred in Vietnam, where the traditions of India and China, it is necessary to refer to Arthashastra. Arthashatra or "Science policy" (the"Science of polity") - politico-economic treatise of ancient India. It contains requirements for state, political and economic device of the ancient Indian States. The authorship of the Arthashastra, the Indian version is attributed to the wise Brahman Kautilya. Of the fifteen partition Arthashastra, five devoted to the use of spies. In the sections there are the following chapters: the Appointment of undercover agents; the Use of secret agents; On the appointment of secret penalties; identification of the young people (offenders) under the guise of magicians; Actions causing strife; murder mystery; War with intrigue; the spies operating a weapon, fire, poison; Destruction of supply, stores, forage; About elimination (foe) through covert measures; the use of secret spies; Means for destruction of the enemy; the Use of means of deception; Counter-damage to his forces.
Of the above chapters you can imagine how much details was developed goal, standing in front of spies. These tasks are determined and a very high degree of training of the performers. Therefore, there were certain schools that used the above system of yoga and other military equipment for the preparation of the performers of the tasks mentioned in the Arthashastra.
System Chuai, is a system for training spies, based on various traditions of Hinduism, rooted in Vietnam, in particular, school Viet Vo Dao "Thien Duong".
KHUAI-TO - the art of being invisible.
What is it like? First of all, possession of non-traditional weapons: throwing plates, a chain with a hook, small wooden throwing sticks, a dart, a bow, throwing knives, etc., masterly mastery of a sword, pole, spear, stick. In battle, a warrior made any object with a weapon: a rope, a nail, a wand, a stone, and everything that came to hand.
KHUAI-TO training began after 5-7 years of training in the basic technique of the school. Students with a high level of psychological stability were allowed to study, as a rule, 50-60% of school students. A student learned about Khuai-TO only after he began teaching him this technique. The basic technique of the school was taken as the basis of the battle technique with bare hands.
This martial art school was distinguished from other types of wrestling by the fact that the attack here was designed for 2-3 hits, which I should have paralyzed or killed the enemy. Particular attention was paid to strikes on points of energy meridians, as well as creases, captures.
In practice, each action was aimed at breaking the opponent’s arm, rib, knee joint, neck, etc. KHUAI-TO is an invisible war, so no one should have seen a person die. This system was used for secret killings, espionage, and it was rarely resorted to. The system’s secrecy was facilitated by rivalry between different schools (although this was quite common in the Middle Ages), reluctance to execute orders from the ruler of a particular region from the verge (often these were unfair orders), espionage but the time of war between countries (especially KHUAI-TO showed itself well during the wars between China and Vietnam).
Spying, organizing murders, everything was very similar to what is now shown in the films about the legendary ninja. But the war between the schools was not conducted as it was shown in the cinema, where the students of one of the schools gather but headed by a teacher and go to trash another school. Although there were many such cases, but often it was just a decoration: the school, seemingly popularly defeated, recognized its weakness, but in reality it was just a maneuver.
When the honor of the school was hurt, the teacher gathered senior students (including those who owned KHUAI-TO). The council decided on the method of revenge. If a decision is made to wage a secret war, the council of senior students gathered and the eldest was elected from them, who supervised the hostilities and also reported everything to the teacher.
A detachment of warriors was formed, whose task was to destroy the warring school or its teacher. But the war of the teacher was guarded by a group of KHUAI-TO warriors.
In the fights that dealt with the honor of the school, the soldiers had to show their true face. Each warrior fought in clothing that spoke of belonging to a particular school. A school sign was certainly applied to these clothes. The fact is that each school had its own color of clothes. For example, in films about the ninja we see a variety of robes: black, white, red, green, orange.
Most consider this to be amusing inventions by a director who wanted to amuse us with colorful costumes. In fact, the color of the clothes spoke of belonging to a particular school. The color of clothes is the color of the person the school worships (in our school, this is the direction in which the student works). The warrior could have the upper garment black or dark blue, but always under the false 1 clothes the true form was worn.
KHUAI-TO of the Viet Vo Dao Thien Dong school is not much different from similar systems in other schools. The difference here is in weapons and basic equipment. At the KHUAI-TO school, work is carried out in 5 main areas, and there are 30 in total.
Each direction has its own color of clothing. The first direction is the KHUAI-TO technique (orange form); j second direction - Pits (black form); the third direction is the technology of KHUAI-TO Shiva (burgundy form); the fourth direction is Brahmas (white form) and the fifth direction is KHUAI-TO for women.
In all areas of KHUAI-TO, the school has the relevant literature, as well as training weapons.
In the east, every school worships a particular god. The Viet Vo Dao Thien Dong school is patronized by 30 gods, so the school's technique is based on 30 directions (styles): from the softest to the toughest.
Each student in the school studies basic technology, after a few years he begins to specialize in one of the 30 areas of the school. The student is required to know the principles of the execution of forms of all directions, but is not required to know all forms.