The Shaolin Wushu is the traditional name for the art of hand-to-hand combat and weapons possession that originated or developed in the Songshan Shao-lin monastery, which is located in the Chinese province of Henan (the administrative center is Zhengzhou) in Dengfeng County. Shaolin Wushu is widespread in China and beyond, it is one of the oldest branches of Wushu. According to legend, it originates from the Indian preacher of Buddhism, Bodhidharma (in Chinese, this name was transcribed as Putidamo, later it was simply called Damo). He arrived in the kingdom of North Wei around the VI century and, being misunderstood by the authorities, retired to this monastery, where he spent nine years in a cave facing the wall (this cave still exists and serves as one of the objects of visiting for tourists). When he finally decided to get up, it turned out that his legs had lost their motor ability. However, using a special set of exercises, Damo restored their activity, and ordered the monks to combine the practice of silent contemplation with physical exercises in the future. From him, the monks allegedly studied the first complex of Shaolin Wushu - “18 hands of arhats” (an arhat - a follower of Buddha who reached the last, fourth step of holiness on the way to nirvana - completely freed from earthly desires). There is no real evidence that Damo taught Wushu, but the historical fact is that the “four acts” prescribed to the monks included “retribution for evil.”
Another popular legend about the Shaolin monastery is the story of how 13 monks rescued the emperor. It was in the 7th century when Li Shimin, the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, escaped from the rebel Wang Shichun and fell into a river flowing near the monastery and was saved by the monks. Thirteen monks decided to protect the emperor, and the monastic detachment defeated the rebels and captured Wang Shichun. Returning to the throne, Li Shimin did not forget the services, granted the monastery land (about 250 hectares), allowed the monks to drink wine and eat meat, and the monastery itself was allowed to contain special monastic troops.
This story served as the basis for the famous film “The Shaolin Monastery,” filmed in the PRC in 1980, in which the monks and tutors of Shaolin were played by Li Lianjie, Qiu Jianguo, Yu Hai and other members of the PRC Wushu team and Chinese champions (as they later said, "Bruce Lee showed the world that the Chinese also know how to fight, and Li Lianjie demonstrated how they actually do it.") After this film, Li Lianjie became world famous, starred in a large number of kung fu fighters, and subsequently received an invitation to become a trainer for the US Wushu team, where he currently works. By the way, one of the generals Wang Shichun was played in this film by Pan Tsingfu, the head coach of the Hunan province national team, who later became famous among fans of oriental video-shooters by the way he played himself in the film "Steel and Silk" ("Iron & Silk").
However, the first historically confirmed information that the Shaolin Monastery has its own particular Wushu style refers only to the beginning of the reign of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China. In the XIII century, a monk named Jueyuan appeared in the monastery. He left his native places for the sole purpose of understanding the secrets of the art of Shaolin fighters. However, despite classes from the best mentors, he came to the conclusion that the level of Shaolin Wushu does not correspond at all to that about which legends speak. Deciding to find real masters, he went in search of. In Lanzhou, he helped beat some robbers to Lee Sow. Learning about the purpose of Jueyuan's wanderings, Li Sou said that in Luoyang (the then capital of China) there is a man named Bai Yongfeng who knows the secret Shaolin traditions. Together with their son Lee Sow (later adopting the monastic name of Denghui) and Bai Yongfeng, all four returned to the monastery. There, for many years, they reworked existing techniques, introducing into them everything that seemed rational and reasonable to them. So, on the basis of “18 Arkhat hands”, Jueyuan created the “72 Hands” complex (currently there is a paired complex “72 Jueyuan Receptions” in Shaolin), which was then supplemented with 170 receptions. Bai Yongfeng has developed a system of "battle of five animals" - a tiger, a leopard, a dragon, a snake and a crane.
The Shaolin Monastery stood until 1928. The 20th years of our century went down in the history of China under the name “reign of the militarists”, when everyone who had at least some military strength (from a group of armies to a battalion) declared himself the sovereign ruler of any territory (from several provinces to one village ) All of them waged a difficult military-political struggle to increase their holdings, and in the long run - for control over all of China, now uniting in cliques, then again violating treaties and alliances. In 1928, the place where the monastery is located became a battlefield, and the monastery was destroyed by a terrible fire in its entire centuries-old history. According to the chronicles, the fire raged for 40 days, the monastery burned to the ground. The monks scattered around the surrounding villages, some returned to the world. Some went to the army to the militarists, where, thanks to their knowledge of martial arts, they quickly drove out to command posts. During the Second World War, monks also had to fight in partisan units. Probably the most dizzying career was made by Xu Shiyu (monastic name Yunyang), who joined the Communist Party and rose to the post of commander of the Guangzhou Military District and became one of the associates of Mao Zedong.
The monastery was in ruins until 1970, when the Japanese So So Dosin announced his intention to visit the famous temple, declaring himself the successor to the Shaolin tradition, allegedly passed to him shortly before the war in China by some of the monks (history, frankly, very, very dubious, but for political reasons, in China they usually prefer to call what they do in the "Japanese Shorinji Kempo Union," the Japanese version of Shaolin Wushu). Then the government urgently allocated a large sum for the restoration of the monastery and gathered the surviving monks (more precisely, those who wanted to return to the monastery).
Currently the monastery of the Songshan Shaolin temple is a large tourist center. Around him feeds a large number of martial arts schools, no relation to the convent without. Usually they make money on gullible foreigners who are seriously willing to pay $ 20 a day for the fact that after two weeks of training to obtain a certificate stating that they "have learned real Shaolin Wushu".
One of the most famous institutions of this kind is the international Academy of Shaolin Wushu. It is headed by Wang Changqing (usually prefer to subscribe to the monastic name Decane), which at one time several years studied in Shaolin traditional medicine — PS Wushu! Then he began to publish on its behalf the proceedings of the 11th Iglinsky archives, not even bothering to even slightly regulate diverse texts and to give them some kind of a system (for comparison: the people who do teach true Shaolin Wushu was making with Noah for the whole life of two to three, on the strength of five books, Decane, over the last 15 years has published something like 30 or 40 books).
Next to the monastery and sports Institute Shao-Lenskogo martial arts, whose graduates ride around in monastic robes around the world giving demonstrations. In these circumstances, a true master leave the monastery, preferring to open their own institutions Shaolin Wushu in other cities and even other provinces of China (for example, the successor of Dagana guardian of the tradition of the style of Shaolin luohan Quan (Shaolin fist of Arhats) — opened his Institute in Kaifeng, in the Sha-oline currently this is one of the classic monastic styles does not own one). However, this does not mean that in the monastery of the masters had already left, there are still. Of contemporary the most famous is Deyang. Alive and some of the elderly, Decani, for example because of the efforts has been the restoration of the monastery in the early 70s (and of which A. A. Maslov reason persistently calls the "dead in 1982"). For many years, the acute problem of the prior, which, according to tradition, should be proficient in Wushu and in Buddhism to understand. Such a long time is not. Of course, someone in the monastery leads constantly (now Sushi), but by his superior not called, he, so to speak, "acting".
Shaolin Wushu styles as there are interior work, where the main — soft and styles of outside work, filled with hard power. To date styles of external work — the vast majority. The inner and outer work are distinguished by the specificity of art, regardless of school. If you mainly train "the muscles, skin and bones" is the external work, if "Jing, qi and Shen" is an inside job.
It is very difficult to determine which styles should be attributed to Shaolin, because in different parts of China, there are styles, which are engaged firmly believe that the style is almost from the Bodhidharma (for example, in Dentine (administrative center of the homonymous district) will show you the complex Lao Hong Quan (old Hong-Quan), completely unknown in Shaolin). Now Shaolin styles are usually classified as (1) styles practiced and practiced in the monastery permanently (as, for example, hunyani, which usually begin to study shaolinchuan) and (2) styles, traditions of which currently reside outside the monastery, but the Shaolin origin of which is undoubtedly (it is mentioned earlier lohany-Qiu-an, or kanizsa Shaolin Quan (Shaolin home style), the Keeper of which was subsequently departed to the world of SF.
Currently, the Taol of Shaolin fist art can be reliably attributed (in addition to the above) to the following: xiao hongquan (small hunquan), da hunquan (large hunquan - 3 complexes), paoquan (cannon fist), zhaoyangquan (fist turned to the sun), mei (fist of plum meihua), tanbiquan (fist of piercing hands), jingguancuan (diamond fist), sinyiba (capture of heart and thought) and a number of others. Paired taolu include luhequan (fist of six compounds), hehequan (fist of five compounds), "Jueyuan receptions" and others. The main types of weapons: pole, spear, broad dao sword, straight jian sword, parnach, tiger head hook, grass sickle, crescent shovel, nine-link whip, three-section flail, dagger, ji halberd, trident. Mixed taolu includes “with bare hands against a broad sword”, “with bare hands against a spear”, “with bare hands against a dagger”, “halberd against a spear”, “wide sword against a spear”, “pole against a spear”, “sickle” for grass against a spear "," a pair of broad swords against a spear "," a pole high to eyebrows against a spear "," a crutch against a spear "," a crutch against a pole to a height of an eyebrow "," a nine-link whip against a pole "," a feather with a whip against spears ”,“ flail against the spear ”and many others.
In addition to all this, Shaolin Wushu has methods of qing (painful grips, creases, asphyxiation, etc.), special methods of short-range combat, the treatise "Ijing-jing" ("Canon of changes in muscles") and many methods of hard and soft operating time.
The specific manner of the Shaolin Wushu is that the rises and lowerings, the offensives and retreats occur in one line, the transverse rises are longitudinal lowerings. Since the Shaolin Wushu was approved in the battles, they believe that the attack and defense should occur frontally or from the side, there is no need to waste strength and walk in circles. There is a saying: "the fist beats in the space where the cow can lie down." This means that in a battle offensives and retreats are taken two or three steps, so when practicing Shaolin Wushu there are no restrictions on the site and equipment.
In addition, in Shaolin Wushu, when hitting a fist (palm), the hand is bent at the elbow - and at the same time it is not bent, straightened - and at the same time not straightened, this is also caused by the need for a real battle. The hand is too straightened - there is no strength left to return, and if a strong opponent grabbed it, it could do harm; if the arm is too bent, it may not reach the target.
In the Shaolin fist arts requires consistent use of the three internal coordinations (hearts and minds, thoughts and qi, qi and force) and three external coordinations (hands and feet, elbows and knees, shoulders and hips). The manner of Sha-Alinsky fist methods is as follows: move like the wind, stand — hammered like a nail, heavy as iron, soft like a leaf, protected — like a virgin strike me as a fierce tiger. There is a saying: "the fist has form, have a no impact form." It makes sense that the fist when training taolu can be seen, but in a real fight because of the speed of lightning, it is difficult to discern its shape. The rule of the art of Boxing States: "no blocks and will be only one hit, there were receptions and blocks attacks will be several dozen."
To applied methods also include the rule "outwardly ferocious inside calm", "to make noise in the East and attack from the West", "show up and hit down", "empty and full are used in parallel", "there are methods for Yin, there are methods for Yan". Movements are powerful and agile, the meaning is deep and pronounced just. The force used cleverly and in abundance contains reactivity, in hard meets soft, tough meets soft, hard and soft assist each other.
Shaolin Quan is described by six characters: life, conformity, courage, speed, ferocity, and authenticity.
"Time" means that the skill must be perfect. As the saying goes, "fist hits a thousand times, and the body moves naturally". The actions of the fists need to have insight into the reached of weirdness that was alive maneuverability, the need to demonstrate "one time one position" in the attack protection in attack. Compliance: qi should move in accordance with make, protection should be consistent with the attacks, helping the force and following the form, no need to log in a head-on collision with the impending reception, four lename you can extract thousands of Zina. "Courage" is the resolve. The opportunity came and attack without hesitation. "Speed" is the speed. The movement is similar to runaway Bunny, look like a flying Swan. "Ferocity" means that the movements must be the force. "Authenticity" means that we should not train beautiful but empty motions; reception of the admission, form for form. If you do not hit sort of protection, but in the kick, the kick has protection.
At the same time in Shaolin Wushu pay great attention on the transformation of empty and full, the strategy working on the principle of "meet hard and soft transformation, meet a mild hard attack". In hardening, the main method is "pillar of Nastavenie", which includes columnar persisting in the position of matzah, on the pillars of characters "zi" and "y" on the pillars of Meihua plum. "High insistence" to the base of the Shaolin fist arts, the most important way of training leg strength and regulation of breathing. Train's "pillar of nastava of IIE" — and in the movements will be steady like mount tai Shan.
The style of Shaolin Quan are summarized in the following lines: "to move like a water wave; to be as calm as a mountain peak; to jump like a monkey; to fall like a magpie; to stand as a cock; to be slender as the pine tree; to revolve, as a wheel; to bend as a bow; to be swift as the wind; persistent, like a Falcon; light as a leaf, heavy as iron; careful, like a virgin; to attack as a ferocious tiger."